Generally, sports injury in the UAE can be divided into
- Overuse injuries
- Blunt trauma
- Fractures and dislocations
- Acute soft-tissue sprains and strains
Overuse is one of the most common causes of athletic injury and is the cumulative effect of excessive, repetitive stress on anatomic structures. It results in trauma to muscles, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, bursae, fascia, and bone in any combination. Risk of overuse injury depends on complex interactions between individual and extrinsic factors.
Individual factors include
- Muscle weakness and inflexibility
- Joint laxity
- Previous injury
- Bone malalignment
- Limb asymmetries
Extrinsic factors include
- Training errors (eg, exercise without sufficient recovery time, excess load, building one group of muscles without training the opposing group, and extensive use of the same movement patterns)
- Environmental conditions (eg, excessive running on banked tracks or crowned roads—which stresses the limbs asymmetrically)
- Training equipment characteristics (eg, unusual or unaccustomed motions, such as those made while on an elliptical trainer)
Runners most often sustain injury after too rapidly increasing their intensity or length of workouts. Swimmers may be least prone to overuse injuries because buoyancy has protective effects, although they still are at risk, particularly in the shoulders, from which most movement occurs.
Blunt athletic trauma can result in injuries such as soft-tissue contusions, concussions, and fractures. The mechanism of injury usually involves high-impact collisions with other athletes or objects (eg, being tackled in football or checked into the sideboards in hockey), falls, and direct blows (eg, in boxing or the martial arts).
Sprains and strains
Sprains are injuries to ligaments, and strains are injuries to muscles. They typically occur with sudden, forceful exertion, most commonly during running, particularly with sudden changes of direction (eg, dodging and avoiding competitors in football). Such injuries also are common in strength training, when a person quickly drops or yanks at the load rather than moving slowly and smoothly with constant controlled tension.